If you are living in the US right now, your grocery store is more than likely practically giving Ataulfo mangoes away. These are my hands-down-no-contest-favorite mangoes with their sweet, lush flesh and intense flavor. They are perfection raw and pretty much sublime when baked with butter and a little lime.
I will gladly admit to copying this recipe, almost verbatim, from one of my favorite cooking blogs, Zen Can Cook. He is an amazing private chef who's recipes are generally a tad more complex to say the least. This is not even close to complex. This is practically done, as he points out, minus the baking time, in about 15 minutes. Just remember to thaw your frozen pastry dough in the fridge according to the package directions. This will add about 1-2 hours so you'll need to consider that when planning your time table.
I was thinking after we ate this delicious ridiculousness the other night (we where all looking for more) that it is kind of silly not to use the whole sheet of rectangular pastry dough. You obviously won't have the pretty circular fan of mangoes, but you could line them up nicely for more of a linear look. If you chose to go that route, I would think you would need to increase the mangoes to about 6 and maybe the butter to 4 T. Just thinking in your best interest.
8" round of puff pastry (I love Dufour)
4 to 5 ripe Ataulfo/Champagne mangoes
2 1/2 T butter, melted
1/3 c sugar, plus extra for sprinkling
1/2 c water
Preheat oven to 375º F
Peel the mangoes and slice each half along the thin pit.
Remove all of the remaining flesh around the pit and roughly chop it.
Place the chopped mango in a small saucepan with 2 or 3 tablespoons of water and a sprinkle of sugar. Cook over medium heat until very soft and most of the liquid has evaporated. Blend in a food processor to make a smooth puree. Cool.
Cut an 8" round from your store bought pastry. Place the round of puff pastry on a baking tray lined with a silpat or parchment paper. Prick with a fork all over except for a 1/4" border. Spread out a thin layer of the cooled mango compote on top of the pastry but keep the 1/4-inch border.
Place the tray in the hot oven and bake for about 35 minutes, or until the pastry is puffed around the edges, golden brown and caramelized.
Meanwhile place the sugar and water in a small saucepan and bring to a boil to make a syrup. Squeeze half the lime in the sugar syrup. Brush the hot lime syrup over the mango tart (you will have more than you need) and grate some lime zest all over it using a microplane grater. Serve warm or at room temperature.